Salivary diagnostic technology offers a number of advantages over other testing methods. Some of these advantages include non-invasiveness, a virtually unlimited supply, cost-effectiveness, and patient comfort, among others. Saliva testing can provide early diagnosis of a variety of diseases and conditions, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. A particularly promising area of research is the identification of salivary biomarkers for a variety of cancers such as lung, breast, and oral cancers. Salivary testing is currently available for the identification of periodontal pathogens. Other research to identify a variety of biomarkers of periodontal disease is ongoing.