The posterior restorative material of choice depends on the individual clinical situation and patient. Amalgam has a long history of use and clinical success. Esthetic restorations are increasingly in demand, and include glass ionomers, compomers and composite resins. Fluoride release is a desirable attribute in a restorative material, as are wear resistance, low polymerization shrinkage and low polymerization stress. Recently, technologies have been incorporated into composite resins that lower polymerization shrinkage and stress.