Managing the immature apex in permanent teeth 

The management of immature permanent teeth with pulpal disease can be a daunting task. It is critical to properly diagnose and understand how to treat these cases.

A peer-reviewed course written by Rico D. Short, DMD, BCE, FICD


The management of immature permanent teeth with pulpal disease can be a daunting task. It is critical to properly diagnose and understand how to treat these cases. Modern technology in dentistry, such as cone beam technology, microscopes, and bioceramics, has made diagnosing and treating these teeth much more predictable. Without these advances in dentistry, it would be difficult to properly debride, clean, and shape thin dentinal walls, which can result in cervical fracture. An extraction or fracture will present a restorative and esthetic problem, especially if it is a young patient, due to the fact that the bone is too immature for an implant. Apexogenesis, apexification, and regenerative endodontics are exciting techniques in dentistry today. Knowledge in pulp biology, intracanal medicaments, and dental trauma lays the framework in which these procedures should be understood in order to perform them properly and successfully. 

“Managing the immature apex in permanent teeth” Educational objectives 

  1. Describe the etiological causes for an open apex in permanent teeth 
  2. Identify challenges that may arise in treating teeth with open apices 
  3. Demonstrate techniques to treat permanent teeth with immature apices 

RICO D. SHORT, DMD, BCE, FICD, is an expert spokesperson on endodontics for the American Dental Association with more than 20 years of experience in dentistry and more than 15 years in endodontics. He is a member of the International College of Dentists, a graduate of the ADA Institute of Diversity in Leadership program, and an ADA Success Speaker. He is also an expert consultant in endodontics to the Georgia Board of Dentistry and an assistant clinical professor at the Dental College of Georgia in Augusta. Dr. Short is an independent national lecturer and an opinion leader on various dental products. He has published in several journals and on social media. Dr. Short was named one of the Top 40 Dentists under 40 in America by Incisal Edge magazine in 2013, Top 20 Alumni Under 40 by Augusta University, and has been named in Dentistry Today consistently as one of the top leaders in continuing education. Dr. Short attained his dental degree from the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry in 1999. In 2002 he earned a postdoctorate degree in endodontics from Nova Southeastern University. In 2009 he was awarded a Diplomate of the American Board of Endodontics. His private practice, Apex Endodontics PC, was opened in 2004 and is located in Smyrna, Georgia.

Download Article

Quick Access Code: 22052

© 1302979557 Pollyana Ventura |

Not Enrolled

Course Includes

  • 1 Lesson
  • 1 Test
  • Course Certificate
  • CE credit(s): 3

    Course Type: Written

    Published Date: August 2022

    This continuing education (CE) activity was developed by Endeavor Business Media with no commercial support.

    This course was written for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, from novice to skilled.

    Educational methods: This course is a self-instructional journal and web activity.

    Provider disclosure: Endeavor Business Media neither has a leadership position nor a commercial interest in any products or services discussed or shared in this educational activity. No manufacturer or third party had any input in the development of the course content.

    Requirements for successful completion: To obtain 3 CE credits for this educational activity, you must pay the required fee, review the material, complete the course evaluation, and obtain an exam score of 70% or higher.

    CE planner disclosure: Laura Winfield, Endeavor Business Media dental group CE coordinator, neither has a leadership nor commercial interest with the products or services discussed in this educational activity. Ms. Winfield can be reached at

    Educational disclaimer: Completing a single continuing education course does not provide enough information to result in the participant being an expert in the field related to the course topic. It is a combination of many educational courses and clinical experience that allows the participant to develop skills and expertise.

    Image authenticity statement: The images in this educational activity have not been altered.

    Scientific integrity statement: Information shared in this CE course is developed from clinical research and represents the most current information available from evidence-based dentistry.

    Known benefits and limitations of the data: The information presented in this educational activity is derived from the data and information contained in the reference section.

    Registration: The cost of this CE course is $39.00 for 3 CE credits.

    Cancellation and refund policy: Any participant who is not 100% satisfied with this course can request a full refund by contacting Endeavor Business Media in writing.

    Provider information:

    Dental Board of California: Provider RP5933. Course registration number CA code: 03-5933-22052. Expires 7/31/2024. “This course meets the Dental Board of California’s requirements for 3 units of continuing education.”


    Endeavor Business Media is a nationally approved PACE program provider for FAGD/MAGD credit.
    Approval does not imply acceptance by any regulatory authority or AGD endorsement.
    11/1/2022 to 10/31/2024.
    Provider ID# 320452
    AGD code: 70


    Endeavor Business Media is designated as an approved Provider by the American Academy of Dental Hygiene, Inc. #AADHPNW (January 1, 2022–December 31, 2024). Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial Board of Dentistry. Licensee should maintain this document in the event of an audit. AADH code:


    Endeavor Business Media is an ADA CERP–recognized provider.

    ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of dental continuing education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry.

    Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to CERP at



CE Courses + Conference Discounts