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Insulin resistance (IR) is considered a chronic and low level inflammatory condition. It is closely related to altered glucose tolerance, abdominal obesity, and coronary heart disease. IR is accompanied by an increase in the inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, Levels of these cytokines also effect the progression of IR.
Periodontitis is the most common oral diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are released in the disease process of periodontitis, including IL-1 and IL-6. Periodontitis can be attributed with exacerbation of IR.
Data in the literature supports a “two-way relationship” between diabetes and periodontitis.
The co-existence of systemic and oral inflammatory diseases warrants closer examination by dental professionals. Appropriate health history questions and review is essential in helping patients maintain oral health.