Dental implants are a well-accepted treatment for the replacement of missing teeth. An estimated two million implants are placed annually, and it can be anticipated that an increasing number of implants will be placed and need to be maintained in the coming years. The intraoral environment and overall health of an individual patient influence patient selection/implant candidacy and the outcome of implant therapy. Factors affecting the intraoral environment include the patient’s heath status, medication use, level of oral hygiene, and habits such as smoking and drinking. Oral hygiene is an important determinant of implant success, as it is with the health of the natural dentition. Brushing and flossing are also critical success factors, requiring considerable patient education and motivation, and adjunctive therapy may be considered. With careful patient selection and patient commitment to oral hygiene measures, the potential for long-term success and implant health is excellent.